“Vindications” – Revelation 3:7-13

[3] W. M. Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia and Their Place in the Plan of the Apocalypse (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1904), 398.

[4] Ibid., 397.

[5] Mounce, 98.

[6] David E. Aune, Revelation 1–5, vol. 52A, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1997), 240, comments on the term: “The phrase οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, “those who dwell on the earth,” is a favorite of the author’s and occurs eight more times in Revelation (6:10; 8:13; 11:10[2x]; 13:8, 14[2x]; 17:8) and three additional times with varied phraseology (13:12; 14:6; 17:2), always in the negative sense of non-Christian persecutors of Christians. The phrase “inhabitants of the earth” (יושׁב הארץ yôšēb hāʾāreṣ or יושׁבי הארץ yôšbê hāʾāreṣ) occurs with some frequency in the OT, though in the Pentateuch it usually means “native Palestinians” (Lam 4:12; Isa 24:6, 17; 26:9, 18, 21; Jer 1:14; 25:29, 30; 38:11; Ezek 7:7; Dan 4:35[2x]; Zeph 1:18).” Mounce, 103, states: “In the other places in Revelation where the latter phrase occurs (6:10; 8:13; 11:10 [twice]; 13:8, 14; 17:8) the enemies of the church are always in mind.” David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation (Fort Worth, TX: Dominion Press, 1990), 129, goes with the translation of γῆς as “land” (which is unusual for this passage), thus “those who dwell on the land.” He then applies the statement as a specific reference to “apostate Israel,” saying “In the Greek Old Testament (the version used by the early church), it is a common prophetic expression for rebellious, idolatrous Israel about to be destroyed and driven from the Land (Jer. 1:14; 10:18; Ezek. 7:7; 36:17; Hos. 4:1, 3; Joel 1:2, 14; 2:1; Zeph. 1:18), based on its original usage in the historical books of the Bible for rebellious, idolatrous pagans about to be destroyed and driven from the Land (Num. 32:17; 33:52, 55; Josh. 7:9, 9:24; Judg. 1:32; 2 Sam. 5:6; 1 Chron. 11:4; 22:18; Neh. 9:24).”

[7] Sam Storms, Kingdom Come: The Amillennial Alternative (Fearn, Scotland: Mentor, 2013), 59.

[8] Cooper, 7.

[9] Ibid., 9.